Author: Kai Arek (Page 1 of 2)

These rapid antigen tests will help you against COVID

You may be invited to engage in contact tracing if you test positive for the COVID-19 virus — or if your doctor believes you have the virus but has not received test results yet. Contact tracking is critical for minimizing infectious illness transmission. Contact tracing is more efficient in limiting viral transmission the sooner it begins.

To begin, you supply a list of individuals with whom you had close contact during the period you were possibly infectious. Public health officials then contact those close contacts to inform them of the exposure and their risk of infection. Your identity is safeguarded during this information exchange.

The contact tracing team gives guidance on how close connections may help reduce the risk of viral transmission. Following an exposure, steps may include having a COVID-19 rapid antigen test, keeping at home and away from people — a process called quarantine — learning about signs and symptoms, and taking further measures.

Suggestions for quarantine

Whether you have had intimate contact with someone who has COVID-19 and is not completely vaccinated, isolates yourself for five days after the exposure to see if you acquire COVID-19 symptoms. Then, for a further five days, wear a mask. If quarantine is not possible, use a mask for ten days. Keep a safe distance from members of your home. Self-isolate if you are experiencing symptoms. learn more about COVID-19 symptoms at

If you have had COVID-19 in the previous three months or have had all recommended vaccination doses, including boosters and extra main injections, you are normally not required to quarantine. However, for ten days, wear a mask.

If you have gotten the required vaccination doses but not a booster, you should remain at home for five days. After at least five days, get your blood checked. And continue to wear a mask for another five days. If you are unable to remain at home for ten days, use a mask.

Coronavirus Rapid antigen tests Made Simple (PCR Rapid antigen tests)

To confirm the presence of the SARS-CoV2 coronavirus in the upper respiratory tract in people suspected of having COVID-19, a potentially painful nasopharyngeal swab collection (PCR analysis for genetic viral material) is frequently performed. With careful preparation and pre-medication before to the coronavirus rapid antigen tests, this sort of coronavirus test may be less uncomfortable.

How Is Coronavirus Testing Performed (PCR Swab)?

The testing technique itself involves inserting a swab coated with an absorbent substance approximately 3 inches into the nose and into the back of the throat. The swab is then swirled for about 15 seconds before being withdrawn. The New England Journal of Medicine has produced a handy video on how to do coronavirus testing using the swab approach.

Due to the fact that the nose is not used to having an instrument inserted within, the majority of individuals find this operation to be psychologically unsettling and physically quite unpleasant. Indeed, if you do not feel any pain throughout the operation, the rapid antigen tests were probably not performed properly, resulting in incorrect findings.

Is Coronavirus Rapid antigen tests (PCR) Involved in Pain?

Numerous feelings may occur during coronavirus PCR rapid antigen tests. Transient discomfort, intense burning within the nose, choking when the back of the throat is touched, sneezing, coughing, and tears have all been recorded as a result of the nasal lacrimal reflex being triggered. If you have a considerable septal deviation or clogged nasal passages as a result of allergies, cold-like symptoms, or nasal polyps, passing the nasal swab to the back of the throat may be extremely difficult.

How Can I Reduce the Pain in My Nose During the Coronavirus Rapid antigen tests (PRC)?

One strategy that may simplify the surgery is to simply administer a topical nasal decongestant (0.05 percent oxymetazoline, brand name Afrin) into the nose 30 to 60 minutes before to the treatment. One drop in each nostril administered while laying down is typically sufficient to decongest the nose enough so that the nasal airway is maximally dilated when the swab is passed. This may help prevent the swab from pressing on the nasal tube walls, causing discomfort and sometimes bleeding. By the time the swab is obtained and the coronavirus rapid antigen tests are completed, very little residual oxymetazoline is remained in the airway to impair virus viability or interfere with the assay. Additionally, taking an antihistamine 30-60 minutes before the test may help avoid or alleviate sneezing, coughing, and tears.

Facilitating the collection of nasal secretions through a nasopharyngeal swab may boost patient acceptance and result in higher-quality specimens for rapid antigen tests.

Now, more than two years into the epidemic, at-home quick tests are accessible to the general public and are a critical component of many communities’ infection-control strategies.

However, when customers do their own COVID-19 rapid antigen tests at home, the possibility of an erroneous result exists if the rapid antigen tests are not given appropriately. There are effective testing methods, which we discuss below with the assistance of infectious disease expert Dr. Douglas MacQueen.

• Step 1: Verify the product’s expiry date.

• Step 2: Conduct a search for any recalls associated with the rapid antigen tests you are administering. You may do so by visiting the website of the Federal and Drug Administration here.

• Step 3: Wash your hands and disinfect the testing area. “There is a potential that you have viral particles or another virus on your skin that cross-reacts with that antigen test,” Dr. MacQueen says. Let’s say you’re collecting it and come into contact with the swab; this could result in a false positive result on the test, meaning you don’t have COVID-19 but do have another coronavirus on your hand from wiping your nose or your child’s nose and then getting it on a swab, which the test detects.”

• Step 4: Before delivering the exam, carefully read all instructions.

• Step 5: Organize the contents of your rapid antigen tests kit.

• Step 6: Identify the kind of nasal swab and the duration of the procedure in the instructions. Dr. MacQueen states that there are often “two options: one is a swab inside your nose, which is bearable. The other is buried deep inside your nostrils. If the exam you purchased requires you to do so, I urge you go as far back as feasible. Whether it’s back in the nose or just in front of the nostril, rotating the swab three or four times or whatever many times the manufacturer recommends in your kit is typically necessary to attempt to capture any virus particles present on the swab. Some of them may advise you to blow your nose ahead of time if you have mucus discharge or a runny nose.”

• Step 7: Comply with the time constraints associated with each step of the rapid antigen tests and pay careful attention to the findings. “Interpreting the data might be challenging,” Dr. MacQueen explains. Many of them describe it like a pregnancy test when a little band begins to change color. If anybody has been through that, deciphering the pregnancy test and determining if it is positive might be a little challenging. Therefore, there are occasions when it is necessary to wait a short period of time and allow the line to completely grow on these COVID rapid antigen tests.”

This COVID test tips will shock you

With so many individuals receiving COVID-19 rapid antigen tests and boosters, it’s easy to overlook the other critical measures available for containing the COVID-19 pandemic. Testing is a critical component that should not be disregarded.

Unfortunately, misunderstandings regarding these exams are widespread, making it difficult for individuals to distinguish fact from fiction.

Here, specialists clarify many of the most prevalent COVID-19 testing misconceptions and explain how to properly administer exams.

Myth 1: You should only get a COVID-19 rapid antigen tests if you are experiencing symptoms.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises that testing take place in a variety of circumstances. Of course, one of these instances is if you get COVID-19 symptoms, which include fever or chills, headache, nausea, and loss of taste or smell, among others, regardless of whether you have been vaccinated.

However, there are situations when testing is justified. If you have close contact with someone who has COVID-19, the CDC suggests that you should be tested promptly and again five to seven days later if you are unvaccinated, and five to seven days after exposure if you are fully vaccinated.

Attending big events and spending time in crowded indoor areas are risky activities that enhance your chances of coming into close contact with someone who has COVID-19.

If you are not vaccinated and travel inside the United States, you should be tested three to five days later and should remain at home and self-quarantine for seven full days, the CDC says. International plane travel may also need testing, regardless of vaccination status, both prior to departure and upon return.

Additionally, “I would recommend performing a rapid home rapid antigen tests if you are planning to see someone who is immunocompromised or elderly,” to avoid infecting them inadvertently, according to Thersa Sweet, PhD, MPH, an associate teaching professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at Drexel University in Philadelphia.

Myth 2: Increases in COVID-19 instances are a result of over testing.

Testing is critical for health professionals to monitor the virus’s transmission within a community, according to Gigi Kwik Gronvall, PhD, a senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security and the director of the Johns Hopkins Center’s COVID-19 Testing Toolkit.

“We now have a better understanding of instances as a result of testing, but testing does not result in an increase in cases,” Dr. Gronvall explains.

While some attribute the increase of COVID-19 instances to an excessive quantity of testing, experts assert that this is not the case. Indeed, Dr. Sweet explains, “if the positive rate is large, it indicates that you are not testing enough individuals.” “All of the spikes I’ve observed recently coincide with a rise in the % positive, suggesting that the spikes represent actual increases in the virus in a community,” she continues.

Myth 3: PCR tests are usually preferable than rapid antigen tests.

There are two distinct kinds of testing available to identify COVID-19. One method is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which searches for evidence of the virus’s genetic material and is sensitive enough to identify infection in its early stages. These tests are accessible at designated COVID-19 testing locations, hospitals, and physician offices, with samples being submitted to a lab for analysis within one to several days.

The second major kind of diagnostic rapid antigen test is a rapid antigen test, also called a rapid antigen test, which identifies the presence of a particular molecule that indicates the existence of a current viral infection but does not directly record it, making it somewhat less reliable. Because the results are accessible immediately, this is the sort of rapid antigen test that is utilized at home. These rapid antigen tests will help you fight against COVID-19 learn more it s helpfulness at

“The best rapid antigen tests is the widely accessible rapid antigen tests,” says Melanie Swift, MD, MPH, co-chair of the Mayo Clinic’s COVID-19 Vaccine Allocation and Distribution Work Group in Rochester, Minnesota.

Due to the possibility that the rapid antigen tests can miss low levels of infection, if you have a negative result (meaning the rapid antigen tests indicates you do not have COVID-19), you should follow up with either a second antigen rapid antigen test — normally 24 to 48 hours later — or a PCR rapid antigen tests, Dr. Swift advises.

In many circumstances, she explains, rapid antigen tests are the superior alternative. Because they can be performed at home, “rapid antigen tests are an excellent alternative for those without symptoms who want to be screened before to or during travel, or who need testing as part of a surveillance program,” Swift adds.

Myth 4: Testing is quite unpleasant since the swab must penetrate your nose really deeply.

At the start of the pandemic, COVID-19 testing required the placement of a swab all the way back to the junction of your nose and the top of your throat referred to as the nasopharynx. Scientists were certain that if viral activity existed, it would be detected in this location, which is where the coronavirus replicates.

However, since many individuals are unable to bear the sensation of a swab being inserted deeply into the nasal canal, testing criteria were adjusted to include the middle portion of the nasal tube — less than an inch in — referred to as the mid-turbinate region. “This is far simpler and more pleasant,” Sweet explains. learn more about nasal structure by clicking here

Nasopharynx samples continue to be the most accurate. According to a review study published in PLoS One in July 2021, tests performed with a nasopharynx swab are 98 percent accurate, while those performed with a mid-turbinate or even more shallow swab are 82 to 88 percent reliable.

Nonetheless, the research authors conclude that the poorer sensitivity is mitigated by the capacity to test a larger number of individuals, making a shallower sample worthwhile.

Myth 5: If a box contains two fast tests, one should be used immediately and the other reserved for another time.

Fact: Several of the presently available fast COVID-19 test brands, such as Abbott BinaxNOW and Quidel QuickVue, are packed in pairs.

If one of these tests returns a negative result, you are urged to repeat it within three days, allowing sufficient time between rapid antigen tests – normally at least 24 hours and no more than 48 hours (check the instructions in your kit to verify). If you want to buy these rapid antigen test kits in Australia, you can visit for a reliable source.

This is because rapid antigen tests may provide a false negative result if they are performed too early in the course of the illness, when virus levels are too low to detect. If you actually have COVID-19, the second test should be positive.

(If any of the two tests is positive, you should contact your doctor immediately and also separate yourself from other people.)

Reading this before making that laser eye surgery decision

Whether we are assisting patients in Sydney or Melbourne, we are committed to offering the highest quality eye treatment available. This dedication to patient welfare is why so many individuals seek laser eye surgery and other modern laser vision correction procedures from our staff.

All of our patients receive extensive pre-and post-operative instructions. For the time being, our staff would like to focus on the latter, presenting seven useful pointers for the laser eye surgery recovery process.

Consequences of LASIK Surgery

Side effects following LASIK laser eye surgery are a regular event and merely an indication that your body is reacting to surgery and correctly recuperating. Following laser eye surgery, the following are common adverse effects:

  • Light sensitivity 
  • Night vision problems 
  • Eye soreness and discomfort

The healing strategies listed below will assist in addressing the numerous side effects mentioned previously.

Avoid Activities That Cause Eye Strain During the Initial Stages

Concentrate on recovering and relaxing during the first 24 hours following surgery. Avoid doing anything that might produce strain on your eyes to allow them to heal more quickly and efficiently.

In other words, avoid the following activities in the hours following your laser eye surgery: 

  • Using a computer 
  • Watching television or a movie 
  • Using a tablet or smart phone
  • Read the news, a magazine, or a book

When Outdoors, Always Wear Sunglasses and Hats

For a number of days following surgery, your eyes will be extremely sensitive to bright light. When you’re outside, don’t forget to wear sunglasses and a brimmed hat. While indoors, it’s also a good idea to avoid strong lighting.

Always Carry Liquid Tears with You

Dry eye episodes can occur at any point during the first weeks and months following laser eye surgery. Carrying liquid tears with you at all times is a good idea to ensure that any dry eye episodes can be addressed immediately.

Stay away from places that are smokey, dusty, or dry

On the subject of dry eyes, the environment in which you are can have a significant impact on the severity of an episode. Avoid smoky, dusty, or dry situations whenever possible, as these circumstances and environments exacerbate the likelihood of dry eye syndrome and eye discomfort. You can read about Read this before going for that laser eye surgery by clicking here.

Drive Carefully at Night

Night vision and difficulties with low-light circumstances are normal in the early weeks following laser eye surgery, although these symptoms resolve over time as the patient heals. Patients should use public transportation or request rides from friends and family members until their night vision improves. Precaution is preferable to regret.

Attend All Follow-Up Visits 

As you recover from laser eye surgery, you will have a series of follow-up appointments with your LASIK surgeon to assess your progress and address any issues. Attend all planned appointments to ensure your recovery is documented and monitored by a qualified medical expert.

Maintain Contact with Your laser eye surgery Center During the Healing Process

Throughout your healing process, questions and concerns may arise. If you have an immediate concern, speak with your LASIK surgeon. Addressing these issues when they occur enables you to avoid possible difficulties and enjoy peace of mind.

Who is a Candidate for laser eye surgery?

The majority of individuals who use glasses or contact lenses are also familiar with laser eye surgery. LASIK is the most frequently done elective surgical surgery worldwide, with hundreds of thousands of operations performed each year in the United States.

laser eye surgery is a procedure that uses cutting-edge laser technology to repair refractive eye problems that result in the requirement for patients to wear glasses or contacts. To begin, a tiny flap is created in the outer corneal tissue that covers the eye using a special portable instrument called a microkeratome. Following the opening of this flap, modern laser technology is utilized to restructure the underlying cornea, allowing light to be refracted appropriately onto the retina at the rear of the eye. This reshaping is carried out with increased precision and accuracy, taking into account the unique demands of each patient.

Once the cornea has been reshaped, the flap is manually reinserted over it and allowed to heal naturally over the next few days. No sutures are necessary, and your eyes should feel fully normal and your eyesight should improve dramatically within a week. That is indeed the case.

Is laser eye surgery a viable option for me?

LASIK laser eye surgery is a very successful method of repairing refractive eye problems in the majority of individuals. Myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism are all included in this category. However, before proceeding with the procedure, your LASIK practitioner will need to examine your candidacy. This will entail examining your vision, the level of your refractive eye error, and the overall health and condition of your eyes to ensure that there are no concerns that might enhance the procedure’s risks.

Patients who are deemed appropriate for LASIK laser vision correction often fall into the following categories:

  • Have a minimum age of 18 years
  • Have maintained stable eyesight for at least 24 months without a change in their prescription.
  • Possess a valid prescription for glasses or contact lenses that falls within the LASIK-specific restrictions as described by your LASIK surgeon.
  • Do not have a family history of corneal illness.
  • Do not have a diagnosis of an eye disease such as diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, or glaucoma.
  • Are not currently suffering from eye infections or other comparable conditions.
  • Are not afflicted with mild to severe dry eyes
  • Are not currently pregnant or nursing
  • Are unsatisfied with the visual freedom provided by glasses or contact lenses.
  • Recognize that if their eyesight deteriorates considerably or if they are required to drive at night, they may require prescription eyeglasses now or in the future.
  • Recognize that presbyopia, an age-related vision disorder, may continue to impact their vision and may require them to wear reading glasses as they age.

Final thoughts

If you’ve been looking for some key information as regards what to know before going for laser eye surgery, then you’ll find this article extremely helpful.

Read this before going for that laser eye surgery

An eye surgery treatment called laser-assisted in situ keratomileuses (laser eye surgery) can significantly enhance your eyesight. It permanently alters the form of the tissue at the front of your eye, and these modifications persist for the rest of your life.

However, as part of the normal aging process, the majority of people’s eyesight deteriorates with time. Because laser eye surgery cannot prevent this from happening, your vision may become blurry again as you grow older.

The length of time that these changes take place after your cataract surgery operation will be determined by your age at the time of the procedure and whether or not you have any other progressive eye diseases.

The FDA authorized LASIK surgery more than 30 years ago, and since then, more than 40 million people have opted to have laser eye surgery to correct farsightedness, nearsightedness, or astigmatism in order to improve their vision. But, exactly, what happens throughout the surgery is a mystery.

Preparation for Laser Eye Surgery consists of a number of steps.

During laser eye surgery, the patient remains conscious during the procedure, which is completed in a matter of minutes. The surgeon begins the treatment by applying anesthetic drops to the eyes to numb them (there is no need for general anesthesia) and using an instrument to maintain them open throughout the process.

Laser eye surgery Procedure

When performing the surgery itself, the surgeon utilizes a sophisticated, cool-beam laser known as a femtosecond laser to accurately produce a flap in the surface of the cornea, which is then closed with sutures. Once the corneal flap has been produced, it is gently shifted in order to make way for the next phase in the surgery.

In the following step, the surgeon will use an excimer laser to carefully sculpt the underlying corneal tissue, eliminating cells in accordance with the patient’s particular prescription. Improved eyesight will result as a result of this procedure since it will enhance the shape of your cornea. After that, the flap is repositioned, and the treatment is finished up. Most of the time, the entire treatment is completed in less than 30 minutes.

Post-Procedure Care and Rehabilitation

In most cases, patients see an improvement in their eyesight immediately following laser eye surgery, and many patients notice an improvement while still in the treatment room. Some patients may have minor discomfort in their eye, comparable to the sensation of having an eyelash in their eye, although this is common and usually subsides within a few hours after undergoing treatment. Prescription eye drops that are intended to prevent inflammation and infection are typically supplied to assist in this process. Make certain to follow your doctor’s instructions about drop regimens.

It is critical to get plenty of rest following surgery. Healing is often fairly quick, with considerable visual improvement occurring within a few days of the procedure being performed. Follow-up consultations over the course of the next year are essential for tracking the healing process and assessing the effectiveness of prescription modifications. The majority of patients will notice a considerable improvement the day after their laser eye surgery and will be able to drive the following morning.

Recovery from PRK

When you get PRK, you’ll wear a little, contact-like bandage over your eye for a few days, which may cause discomfort and sensitivity to light while your epithelium repairs. After roughly a week, the bandage will be removed, and your eyesight will be slightly blurred until then.

A lubricating or medicated eye drop prescription will be given to you by your doctor to assist keep your eye moist while it recovers. Additionally, you may be prescribed drugs to assist ease pain and suffering.

Your eyesight will improve substantially immediately following surgery, but it may deteriorate somewhat until your eye has totally healed. Your doctor may advise you to refrain from driving until your vision has returned to normal.

The entire healing process takes around one month. Your eyesight will gradually improve with each passing day, and you will need to visit your doctor on a regular basis until your eye is completely recovered. Visit to read about Reading this before making that laser eye surgery decision.

Recovery after laser eye surgery

Even if you don’t wear glasses or contacts, you’ll most likely notice a significant improvement in your vision immediately following laser eye surgery. It is possible that you will have near-perfect eyesight the day after your procedure.

During the healing process of your eye, you should feel little pain or discomfort. It is possible that you will have some burning in your eyes for a few hours following the operation, but this should subside quickly.

In order to alleviate any discomfort that may occur, your doctor will prescribe some lubricating or medicinal eye drops that will last for a few days.

The majority of the time, you should be totally recovered within a few days of your surgery.

Is there a difference in effectiveness between the two procedures?

When it comes to permanently restoring your eyesight, both treatments are just as successful. The most significant difference is the amount of time required for recuperation.

Laser eye surgery can provide clear vision in a few days or fewer, but PRK might take up to a month. If the surgery is performed properly by a qualified and skilled surgeon, there will be no difference in the end outcomes between the two.

Because PRK does not leave a flap in your cornea, it is generally believed to be safer and more successful in the long run. If you have an injury to your eye, the flap left behind after laser eye surgery may be vulnerable to increased damage or difficulties.

What is the price tag?

As usual, both operations will cost between $2,500 and $5,000 in total.

Laser eye surgery is less expensive than PRK because of the necessity for additional post-operative check-ins to remove the bandage and monitor your eye’s recovery over the course of a month, which PRK does not need.

Because laser eye surgery and PRK are considered elective procedures, they are typically not covered by health insurance programs.

A health savings account (HSA) or a flexible spending account (FSA) may be able to assist you in defraying the expense of your treatment if you have one. These plans are occasionally made available as part of an employer’s health benefits package.

ADHD DSM-5 Diagnosis

DSM-5 stands for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition. ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are diagnosed by psychiatrists and psychologists with the DSM-5 criteria, which are descriptions of behavior patterns. There is nothing in the manual linked to physiological or neurological criteria. The DSM-IV-TR manual (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision) states this clearly:

There are no laboratory tests, neurological assessments, or attentional assessments that have been established as diagnostic in the clinical assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.”

(DSM-IV-TR page 88)

This attitude is still valid in the DSM-5. As stated in the DSM-5 page 61:

No biological marker is diagnostic for ADHD. As a group, compared with peers, children with ADHD display increased slow wave electroencephalograms, reduced total brain volume on magnetic resonance imaging, and possibly a delay in posterior to anterior cortical maturation, but these findings are not diagnostic..”

DSM-5 page 61

ADD/ADHD is a complex set of conditions. The DSM-5 defines ADHD by a set of symptoms as a single disorder. This tends to give the impression that ADHD is a single disorder with a one-size-fits-all stimulant solution.

This is not true, however, as ADD/ADHD is complex. Consensus science tends to lag behind innovative science. At the Amen Clinics, Dr. Daniel Amen has analyzed tens of thousands of ADD brain scans from over 100 different countries. He has found seven different types of brain patterns with ADD/ADHD symptoms. By correlating symptoms with brain activity, he can prescribe targeted treatment for each individual. The DSM-5 speaks about “ADD presentations” which are vague, while the Amen Clinic scans are specific for each individual brain.

There is a free online ADD/ADHD test at the Amen Clinics site.

The three main changes in the DSM-5 from the previous version, the DSM-IV, are:

  • Regarding teens and adults the onset is no longer 7-years-old, but by the age of 12. Teens and adults can now be easier diagnosed. While children still should have six or more symptoms of the disorder. In older teens and adults the DSM-5 states they should have at least five symptoms.
  • A diagnosis with ADHD and autism spectrum disorder can now coexist.
  • The different “types” of ADHD/ADD are now called “presentations.”

DSM-5 ADD/ADHD Diagnostic Criteria

Diagnostic criteria according to the DSM-5 for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are as follows:

A. Either (1) or (1) and (2):

(1) At least six of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that negatively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational activities, and is inconsistent with developmental level:


(a) Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in school work, work, or other activities.

(b) Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities.

(c) Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.

(d) Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish school work, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions).

(e) Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities.

(f) Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework; for older adolescents and adults, preparing reports, completing forms, reviewing lengthy papers).

(g) Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g. toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools).

(h) Is often easily distracted by stimuli unrelated to the subject or activity being dealt with. For older adolescents and adults, may include unrelated thoughts.

(i) Is often forgetful in daily activities, such as doing chores, running errands; for older adolescents and adults, returning calls, paying bills and keeping appointments.

(2) At least six of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-Impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:


(a) Often fidgets with or taps hands or feet or squirms in seat.

(b) Often leaves seat in classroom, office meetings or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected.

(c) Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate. In adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness.

(d) Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly.

(e) Is often “on the go” or often acts as if “driven by a motor.”

(f) Often talks excessively.


(g) Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed, or completes people’s sentences and cannot wait for turn in conversation.

(h) Often has difficulty awaiting turn.

(i) Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations, games or activities; may start using other people’s things without asking or receiving permission; for adolescents and adults, may intrude into or take over what others are doing).

B. Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were present prior to age 12 years.

C. Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are present in two or more settings (e.g., at home, school, or work; with friends or relatives; in other activities).

D. There is clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with, or reduce the quality of, social, academic, or occupational functioning.

E. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder and are not better explained by another mental disorder (e.g., mood disorder, anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, personality disorder, substance intoxication, or withdrawal).

Attention Deficit Presentations

Combined Presentation: if both Criteria (1) and (2) are met for the past 6 months.

Predominantly Inattentive Presentation: if Criterion (1) is met but Criterion (2) is not met for the past 6 months.

Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation: if Criterion (2) is met but Criterion (1) is not met for the past 6 months.

Attention Deficit Severity

Mild: Few, if any, symptoms in excess of those required to make the diagnosis are present, and symptoms result in only minor functional impairments.

Moderate: Symptoms or functional impairment between “mild” and “severe” are present.

Severe: Many symptoms in excess of those required to make the diagnosis, or several symptoms that are particularly severe, are present, or the symptoms result in marked impairment in social or occupational functioning.

ADHD 6 Types: Overfocused and Limbic ADD

this page is a continuation of six ADHD types Overfocused ADD and Limbic ADD.

One ADHD researcher, Dr. Daniel Amen at the Amen Clinic has used SPECT brain imaging (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) to study attention deficit and has found six different types of ADHD. His research indicates that there are six types of ADHD. Daniel Amen’s six types of ADHD make more sense than the conventional model with three types, as his model reflects real-life ADHD. Determining the type of ADHD is a great help in finding the best treatment for the individual person with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity problems.

Please remember that ADD/ADHD is dimensional and not categorical. There are overlaps between the different types as well as variations as to which symptoms a person has and the severity of the specific symptoms.

Type 3: Overfocussed ADD – Not “real” or true ADHD – Oppositional


  • Inattentive.
  • Short attention span.
  • Easily distracted.
  • Disorganized loses or misplaces things.
  • Hyperactive.
  • Stuck in negative thoughts or behavior.
  • Worries excessively even over things that are not important.
  • Holds grudges.
  • Inflexible cognitive thinking.
  • Obsessively compulsive about the way things ought to be done.
  • Argumentative and oppositional towards parents. May even seem to enjoy arguing.
  • has to have his/her own way.
  • Task oriented, has trouble shifting attention or from one activity to another.
  • Needs things to remain the same.
  • Often is in families with addiction problems or obsessive-compulsive tendencies.

Anterior Cingulate Gyrus

SPECT Pattern: Usually high anterior cingulate activity plus low prefrontal cortex with concentration.

Natural Treatment:

  • Stimulant medication and L-Tyrosine supplements are likely to make a person with this type of ADD worse.
  • Supplement formulations that help the over focussed type are:
    • Deprex, for the worry and depression.
    • Extress, for anxiety, irritability and restlessness.
    • Attend, for attention deficit symptoms, inattention and distractibility.
  • A helpful resources for you to get over anxiety is the EasyCalm Video Coaching Series. This is the leading anxiety and panic attack coaching series in downloadable video.
  • Behavior programs for oppositional behavior. There are different strategies for the two age groups:
    • in 2 to 12 year olds
    • oppositional behavior in teens.

ADHD Health comments: This is not the true positive attention deficit hyper focusing personality (ADD/ADHD). This is Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) or Conduct Disorder (CO). The argumentativeness, the different brain areas affected and the different response to treatment indicates that this is a different condition and not what is normally referred to as ADHD. This type is often seen in dysfunctional families where there is alcohol or other addiction problems.

The Anterior Cingular Gyrus overactivity is crucial in showing that this is not conventional ADHD. This part of the brain functions as the gatekeeper between the brain’s emotional limbic region and the cognitive frontal cortex. In this ADD or rather an ODD type of person, there is no control switch allowing negative emotion to flood the thinking area. It is here in the Cingular Gyrus that shifting attention from one task to another takes place. The overactivity in the Cingular Gyrus explains the cognitive and behavioral inflexibility with shifting tasks and the compulsive thinking as to how things ought to be.

Type 5: Limbic ADD

| Limbic System:

  • Includes the thalamus and hypothalamus
  • Regulates emotions
  • Emotional memories
  • Influences the hormone system
  • has a relay and gating function for sensory information
  • Control of motivation and drives


  • Inattentive.
  • Have a chronic mild depression with negative thoughts.
  • Easily give up, opposite of the resilient Inattentive and Hyperactive types
  • Apathetic with low energy.
  • Low self-esteem, feelings of worthlessness.
  • Often feel helpless or hopeless.
  • Poor sleep patterns.

SPECT Pattern: Usually high deep limbic activity plus low prefrontal cortex at rest and while concentrating.

Natural Treatment:

  • Diet. ADD people have a different metabolism to average people and so do depressed people.
  • Omega-3 fish oil.
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and/or biofeedback training.
  • Aerobic exercise daily for 30-45 minutes, preferably outside.
  • Supplement formulations specially formulated for the ADD metabolism and depression:
    • Attend, for attention deficit symptoms, inattention and distractibility.
    • Deprex, for the worry and depression.
    • Extress, for restlessness and anxiety.

ADHD Health comments: This is another form of attention deficit, but with the added complication of the brain locked into a negative thought pattern. The other forms of real or true ADHD the inattentive and classic types are resilient and can take knocks, bouncing back. However, this type tends to give up easily and is more likely, for that reason to fail in life. Therapy to reset the brain or calm the limbic system, such as some forms of meditation might work well. Stimulant medication is likely to make the condition worse in this ADD type.

ADD ADHD types four and six continue on Temporal Lobe ADD and Ring of Fire ADD.

ADHD Hunter versus Farmer Theory

ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) have been with mankind since Adam. Why is it only recently that it has become a problem? This is the question former psychotherapist Thom Hartmann asked. He then drew a logical conclusion, that ADD and ADHD are a result of natural adaptive behavior.

Thom Hartmann then proposed the hunter vs. farmer theory as a theory explaining ADHD and AADD (Adult Attention Deficit Disorder).

This ADHD theory answers many of the questions about ADHD and accepting this theory explains the behaviors and difficulties some individuals with ADD/ADHD experience. It does not give all the answers, as there are over 100 causes of ADHD like behavior.

Like some other alternative ADHD theories, this originated from a child getting the ADHD diagnosis and the parent thinking, “My child does not have a disorder.” Thom Hartmann’s son was diagnosed and that got him to look at the ADHD controversy seriously. His conclusion was, “It’s not hard science, and was never intended to be.” ADHD is only a list of symptoms, with no criteria directly connected to any cause or disorder.

According to this theory, humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers for thousands of years, but as people started farming and living settled lives other personality traits, more suitable to a sedentary life, developed. The ADHD person is then someone who has retained some of the older hunter-gatherer characteristics. So-called “normal” people are the “farmers.”

This theory has been validated by a number of studies of people living traditional tribal and nomadic lifestyles. Those tribes’ people who continued their traditional lifestyles had no problems with their ADD and ADHD, but members of the same tribe living in towns had ADHD problems like those in western society.

The people that are covered by this theory have an ADD or ADHD personality. They do not have a disorder but need to find their niche in our modern western society. A part of this adaptation is finding a career that suits their personalities and does not, as is so often the case, fit themselves into a career considered a “good career” for the average individual.

An important talent ADHD people have is the ability to hyperfocus. Hyperfocus is an intense form of mental concentration or visualization that focuses consciousness on something. It is like tunnel vision where the rest of the world is cut off, blocking out potential distractions. It is in this state that the ADD personality’s creative imagination is at work. Hyper focusing can either be while thinking or while engaged in some activity.

It is connected with a vivid and creative and imaginative mind. However, if they are distracted it becomes hard to hyperfocus again. Hyper focusing is part of the explanation why people with an ADHD personality have a distorted or lacking sense of time. Hyper focusing makes it easier to meditate and relax if one accepts this gift and not be worried that one is not like everyone else.

These people can also rapidly shift their focus and attention. Their minds work in parallel processes so they can hold multiple thoughts. This ability causes problems at school when they are presented with specific tasks to do. They think in a more intuitive way than the school teaches. They do not do well when told what to think and how to think.

The hunter has to be aware of signs of their prey, dangers, and make quick decisions. This is a stimulating experience, where impulsivity and hyperactivity, two symptoms of ADHD, are beneficial. For such a child, sitting in a classroom and being forced to do some boring or repetitive work, will heighten every distraction from the classroom and even from outside. This is the reason for their distractibility.

Hyper focusing is a mental ability that is a natural expression of personality. It is not an ability, which can be switched on or off at will and it is situational. This has led to many erroneous conclusions by ADHD researchers, who assume all children are the same, and those who are not average have a disorder. It is the child’s own interest, which triggers it, not when told to do something.

The errors many leading ADHD researchers make is to assume that only one way of thinking or learning is “normal” and a child thinking or learning another way is a “disorder.” There are many learning styles, which are personality traits. These academics have arbitrarily defined “normal” behavior as behavior most suitable in the conventional classroom.

The average school classroom environment is not a natural environment for a young child. Children are not designed to sit still for hours doing tasks that may be perceived as boring. This is not normal, and the reactions of ADD and ADHD children through various hyperactive or daydreaming behaviors are their coping strategies.

This post is sponsored by: Clinical Supplies a company that is supplying different test kits .

The History of ADHD

ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) also called Hyperkinetic Disorder and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) are conditions increasingly diagnosed in the industrial western world during the last two decades. In spite of the authoritative style in which this subject is often presented in the media, ADHD research is still in the area of hypotheses and not fact.

It is the most diagnosed childhood psychiatric condition, yet it is also the most misdiagnosed and misunderstood childhood behavioral condition.

ADHD history as a documented disorder is now a little over 200 years old. In 1798, the Scottish physician Alexander Crichton described quite accurately the behavior pattern now called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

In his book, with the dreadful title, “An Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Mental Derangement,” Crichton described it as a “mental restlessness” and wrote that his patients call it “The Fidgets.” Interestingly he was way ahead of his time, noting that people were either born with it or that it was the effect or result of the accidental disease. Illnesses such as hypothyroidism and early-onset diabetes are some of the 100 odd causes of attention deficit and hyperactivity. He also noticed that as the person got older the symptoms diminished. This is due to maturity and intuitively learning coping strategies.

He even touched on one of the most important causes of attention deficit in school, an intolerance of boredom, when he wrote, “Every public teacher must have observed that there are many to whom the dryness and difficulties of the Latin and Greek grammars are so disgusting that neither the terrors of the rod nor the indulgence of any kind entreaty can cause them to give their attention to them.”

Crichton recommended special educational intervention for these children and noted that it was obvious that they had a problem with keeping attention no matter how hard they tried. What was commendable with Crichton’s observations was that he did not show the bigoted moralizing arrogance with which George Still, a hundred years later, set the tone of authority’s attitudes towards children with ADHD. This arrogant attitude can still be found in some of the foremost figures in ADHD research today.

In 1904, about a hundred years after Crichton’s observations, the British pediatrician, George Still, published in the British medical journal, The Lancet, a description of a set of behaviors he called, “a morbid defect of moral control” which he believed to be “volitional inhibition” disorder. We do not know what these children had. They could have been emotionally disturbed or had Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) or Conduct Disorder (CO) and not what is today considered as ADHD, although they still have the symptoms of attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.

George Still’s basic error of calling a pattern of behaviors a disorder is still with us today. This condition we now call Attention Deficit Disorder is complex, individual, and difficult to generalize, so we categorize it and give it a label to solve the problem. Basically, researchers are searching for some kind of easy formula to explain a condition that is very complex. A brief review of the literature would show any open-minded scientist with common sense, and with a basic understanding of the difference between cause and effect, that we are dealing with many varied conditions with a limited set of symptoms in common.

Correlation does not imply causation. A relationship between two variables does not imply there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the two.

A symptom is not a disorder; the cause of the symptom is the disorder.

George Still had only twenty patients, unlike today’s almost epidemic number of ADHD diagnoses. Looking at the range of causes of ADD/ADHD behavior it is most likely that his twenty patients had the more difficult and extreme ADHD behaviors. This means they probably were antisocial. They were not the hyperactive-child-next-door variety of ADHD children. They stuck out in that society that was more tolerant of hyperactive children. This would mean that his patient was likely to have Opposition Defiance Disorder, Conduct Disorder or an extreme form of autism. Autism was still an unknown condition in 1904.

Note on autism: Autism is a spectrum disorder defined by a problem with social contact and most autistic people would not be in Still’s patient group. Autistic people have contributed greatly to humanity’s development in science, philosophy, literature, etc. We would not have computers today if it were not for some autistic mathematical geniuses who made computing possible.

Hippocrates (460 to 370 BC) made the first mention of attention deficit, as he described an ADHD-like behavior. Aristotle probably had ADHD, as did Galileo, Leonardo da Vinci, Newton, Einstein, Picasso, Robin Williams, Whoopi Goldberg, Richard Branson, and a long list of people who have benefited humanity and brought us to where we are today in fields as varied as science, technology, economics, mathematics, and the arts. ADHD personalities have innate creativity, enthusiasm, and intuitiveness if it is not suppressed by misguided education.

There is a paradox with attention deficit and that is that attention-deficit people have the ability to hyperfocus. However, this is difficult to study because the act of observation in a study tends to put the person into attention deficit. The school has the same effect of inducing boredom intolerance and attention deficit. This is a complex subject for which there is no magic recipe.

Shakespeare also mentioned adult attention deficit in Henry VIII, calling it a “malady of attention.”

In the 19th Century, hyperactivity was again mentioned in literature. Dr Heinrich Hoffman, a German doctor, and author, wrote a collection of poems for children called “Der Struwwelpeter” in 1844. The poems, with entertaining illustrations on each page, were about some nasty little children and some sad stories. Hoffman’s humor was like an ornery Roald Dahl. One of the poems was “Die Geschichte vom Zappel-Philipp” or “The Story of Fidgety Philip.”

The Story of Fidgety Philip

“Let me see if Philip can

Be a little gentleman;

Let me see if he is able

To sit still for once at the table.”

Thus Papa bade Phil behave;

And Mama looked very grave.

But Fidgety Phil,

He won’t sit still;

He wriggles, And giggles,

And then, I declare,

Swings backward and forwards,

And tilts up his chair,

Just like any rocking horse.

“Philip! I am getting cross!”

See the naughty, restless child,

Growing still more rude and wild,

Till his chair falls over quite.

Philip screams with all his might,

Catches at the cloth, but then

That makes matters worse again.

Down upon the ground they fall,

Glasses, plates, knives, forks and all.

How Mama did fret and frown,

When she saw them tumbling down!

And Papa made such a face!

Philip is in sad disgrace.

Where is Philip, where is he?

Fairly covered up you see!

Cloth and all are lying on him;

He has pulled down all upon him.

What a terrible to-do!

Dishes, glasses, snapped in two!

Here a knife, and there a fork!

Philip, this is cruel work.

Table all so bare, and ah!

Poor Papa, and poor Mamma

Look quite cross, and wonder how

They shall make their dinner now.

In the aftermath of the encephalitis epidemic in North America in 1917-1918, many survivors showed ADHD-like behavior. This resulted in the condition being upgraded from a “Morbid Moral Defect” to “Minimal Brain Damage” and then later to “Minimal Brain Dysfunction.” The assumption was the survivors had suffered some brain damage. It had been observed that head injury, disease, and congenital defects affected behavior.

In 1937 it was discovered by chance that stimulants, like amphetamines, resulted in calming restless children. The Second World War probably caused these researchers to lose their focus, as the practice of drugging children with Schedule II drugs was not at first implemented. It was not until the late 1950s before giving stimulant drugs to young children became routine. By the mid-1960s this was a usual treatment for what was then still called “Minimal Brain Damage.”

In the 1960s Minimal Brain Dysfunction was relabelled as “Hyperactive Child Syndrome.” The researcher who coined this phrase, Stella Chase, thought her syndrome had a biological cause. There was no consensus on this, as many other researchers believed the cause to be environmental. There is a long list of conditions, which result in ADHD behavior.

Then in 1980, the American Psychiatric Association, by a vote of hands in a committee meeting, added Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) to the diagnostic list. From this point on the epidemic started, fuelled by big pharma’s marketing campaigns. Many researchers who today are considered leading authorities on the subject of attention-deficit are funded, directly or indirectly, by the pharmaceutical industry. This has led to the schism between authoritative researchers and doctors who, on the one hand, are focused treating the cause of attention deficit, and on the other hand those fixated on masking symptoms by medication.

This can be summed up as follows:

  • Find the cause and fix it, or
  • Suppress the symptom and the problem is solved.

As our knowledge stands today, no researchers fully understand ADHD themselves. Some aspects of ADHD and ADD are outside modern science and in the sphere of philosophy. Many researchers are so busy digging their hole in their particular niche, that they have lost sight of the hugely complex subject they are referring to.

In 1987, ADHD was voted in by a similar informal vote, and placed into the DSM-IV (The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders).

Ritalin, Adderall, and Concerta have all been marketed with an aura of scientific exactitude and responsibility behind them. Too many physicians accept what the pharmaceutical industry says without question. It is after all much simpler to medicate than to treat the patient with natural remedies for ADHD. Their consciences are stilled by the advertising mantras churned out by big pharma.

In 1998 this situation with no consensus between the pharmaceutical companies and their doctors on one side, and doctors who focussed on treating their patients on the other. The National Institute of Health (NIH) held a “Consensus Development Conference.” This defined the “consensus” attitude which we still have today.

Quotations from the “Consensus Developmental Conference” report:

“Despite progress in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD, this disorder and its treatment have remained controversial, especially the use of psycho stimulants for both short- and long-term treatment. Although an independent diagnostic test for ADHD does not exist, there is evidence supporting the validity of the disorder. Further research is needed on the dimensional aspects of ADHD, as well as the coexisting conditions present in both childhood and adult forms.”

“We do not have an independent, valid test for ADD/ADHD and there are no data to indicate that ADD/ADHD is due to a brain malfunction.”

“Finally, after years of clinical research and experience with ADHD, our knowledge about the cause or causes of ADHD remains largely speculative. Consequently, we have no documented strategies for the prevention of ADHD.”

In spite of that, this set the tone and direction of ADHD research for the next decade. The research is so focused on a neurological disorder (one cause) that there is a lack of research on multiple causes. This ignores the possibility of a hundred children with ADHD behaviors could have these symptoms from a hundred different causes or combinations of causes. Causes can be anxiety, frustration due to learning difficulties, or frustration from boredom due to under-stimulation in the classroom, allergies, and many many more.

In 1998 they said ADHD was controversial.

They did not have an independent validated test, such as a biological or blood test.

They admitted they had no proof that ADHD was a disease, as there was no a proven biological basis for ADHD.

That was in 1998, and neither do they have any test or proof in 2010.

A doctor diagnosing ADHD in a child today, uses subjective reports on perceived behavior of that child, from teachers and parents. Then they look into the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition) and base their diagnosis and decision to medicate, with powerful and addictive drugs, on this subjective base.

What are the DSM-IV criteria based on? The committee of the DSM-IV meets in a committee room and by a show of hands, vote into existence the disorder of the day, and give it a code number in the DSM. That is how we get so many psychiatric disorders. No ADHD or ADD physiological tests or criteria are considered today, which means little has changed in 100 years, except that we are more confused now. ADHD as a disorder is an opinion, not a fact.

ADHD is real! The error is in calling it a disease. The main problem in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the last term, “disorder.” If we called it dysregulation instead, then we could have Attention Deficit Hyperfocussing Personalities. Even the “Attention Deficit” part is misleading. So-called attention-deficit people can be hyper focussed if they are interested and stimulated. The problem is that they cannot regulate when they are in attention deficit or hyper-focus. This is situational. An adult can create an environment where s/he can get into the hyperfocus mode, but a schoolchild cannot, unfortunately, create an ADHD-friendly classroom.

Do we have difficulties with attention deficit? Sure we do, but having a disorder makes us victims, being enthusiastic, creative, and able to focus makes us conquerors.

On a personal note; I have an attention deficit and experienced a nervous breakdown trying to be “average.” Now I am modifying my lifestyle around my Attention Deficit Hyperfocussing Personality. I take certain supplements, which definitely help me focus, but I have little sense of time, am still forgetful, sort of scatterbrained, and avoid boring tasks. So I concentrate on what I can do well and delegate what I cannot do. My wife tells me 15 minutes before when it is time to get ready to go out. I go early to appointments, sometimes getting there half an hour early.

It is about time the history of ADHD started to focus on the positive sides of the attention deficit hyper focusing subject.

Vitamin B6 ADHD and Calm Minds

Vitamin B6 calms the nervous system, helps the body to produce neurotransmitters and so balance the neurotransmitter systems transmitting messages through it. No wonder then that numerous studies have connected this vitamin with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder).

ADD/ADHD is generally considered a neurological disorder where a person is easily distracted, unable to focus on a specific task, daydream in ADD and fidget and feel restless in ADHD.

Saying something is a neurological disorder is not helpful unless one also says, what has caused this neurological problem. Treating symptoms, but not whatever it is that causes the symptoms is not a cure, but an excuse to sell medicine.

ADHD medication calms children according to one view, but dampens their spark and makes them compliant according to the alternative view, by describing the same effect from different viewpoints. If ADD/ADHD people have a deficiency in the neurotransmitter dopamine, then the logical question a doctor should ask is: “Why?”

The cause of the deficiency should be addressed as naturally as possible and not artificially boosted for a few hours with potent synthetic drugs. If ADHD is caused by a dopamine deficiency, get the body to produce the dopamine by itself. ADHD is not a Ritalin deficiency. ADHD is a complex set of conditions that are still not well understood, but share a common set of symptoms. The individual’s metabolism of vitamins and minerals is one link in this story. One study found that vitamin B6 was as or a little more effective than methylphenidate, one of the stimulant drugs used to treat ADHD. The products containing methylphenidate are Ritalin, Concerta, Focalin, and the Daytrana patch.

People who are hyperactive and/or have attention deficit have a different metabolism than the majority of the population and therefore need supplements to help compensate for this deficit. It is not so much a disorder, but more like being different. The link between metabolism and ADHD has largely been ignored in research, but the fact remains that with the right amount of magnesium and B6 in the body, people with ADHD can think clearer and concentrate better.

Children with ADHD (that’s the age group mostly studied) generally have lower vitamin B6 and magnesium levels than the average child. These two nutrients are linked, and for best effect, with ADD/ADHD both should be taken. Taking these two supplements eases hyperactive behavior and increases focus and attention, being able to think clearer and concentrate better.

ADHD medication as directed on the dopamine neurotransmitter system as a lack of dopamine causes ADHD-like symptoms. Vitamin B6 is needed for the formation of dopamine. If there is a vitamin B6 deficiency, then the body’s dopamine production suffers. ADHD stimulant drugs will mask this deficiency artificially, while a vitamin B6 supplement will help the brain produce dopamine naturally.

Dopamine is formed when the enzymes in the brain react with L-DOPA, but this process is first activated by a co-enzyme, which is vitamin B6.

For ADD and ADHD, magnesium should be taken together with vitamin B-6. This vitamin improves the absorption of minerals including magnesium into cells. Zinc is also usually low in attention deficit and hyperactive people, and a supplement like the product ZMA from NOW is ideal as it contains these elements and vitamins in the right proportions for ADHD and is designed to maximize absorption. It is a synergistic combination of zinc and magnesium with vitamin B6 without sugar, yeast, gluten, soy, milk, egg, shellfish, or preservatives. For treating ADD and ADHD the recommended doses vary but is in the region of:

Magnesium: 3 mg to 6 mg per pound bodyweight and day.

Vitamin B-6: 0.3 mg per pound bodyweight and day.

>>>>> Get magnesium and B6 from NOW <<<<<

You can experiment, starting with these dosages, as your need is very individual depending on your metabolism. There is no risk of overdosing on vitamin B6 at this level of dosage in healthy people. (See !!! NOTE below on magnesium overdosage.)

If you do get a benefit from this, then you need to keep taking this supplement. I do and I treat my B6-magnesium supplements as food. We all have our personal metabolism, that is why there is no universal weight loss diet, in spite of what the adverts try to make us believe.

Vitamin B6 plays an essential role for normal brain development and is essential in the synthesis of brain chemicals, converting amino acids into neurotransmitters in the brain. It also is necessary keep a healthy balance between the neurotransmitter systems. Vitamin B6 helps to produce: acetylcholine, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine and serotonin as well as and the allergy regulator histamine. This vitamin is also an important antioxidant.

!!! NOTE on magnesium overdosage:

For most healthy people large doses of magnesium appear safe, so magnesium from food and a reasonable addition of supplement will not lead to an overdose. The first sign of taking too much magnesium is the laxative effect. Many laxative products contain magnesium compounds for this effect.

Stimulant medication taken for ADHD increases the absorption of magnesium, therefore if you do take this medication be aware of this effect.

A deficiency in magnesium is less pleasant, it results in nausea, fatigue, muscle weakness, irritability, depression, loss of appetite, cramps, abnormal heart rhythm, and in women an increased premenstrual stress.

!!! NOTE If you have kidney problems: You should not take magnesium supplements. Your doctor should prescribe medication to counter magnesium deficiency. Although people with kidney disorders may have low magnesium levels, they risk complications from a high magnesium intake and should use medication instead of supplements.

ADHD Social Construct Theory

In the ADHD Social Construct Theory, the idea is that ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are generally speaking, not biological or psychiatric disorders, but can be better explained by environmental causes or even the personality type of the person. For example, an ADD person can be an introvert, while a hyperactive person is an extrovert.

This theory suggests that the observed behaviors are not abnormal, but normal behavior for a part of the human race. However, extreme overreactions are caused by environmental factors. Among these factors are cramped living conditions with inadequate play space, the United States’ classroom environment together with the increased educational burden being expected from children today, and the stress parents are under, making it more difficult to be in tune with their children like parents are in Africa are able to do.

As an example: a young child sitting quiet and still for three-quarters of an hour at a time, listening to something they are told to learn, but which they do not find interesting, is unnatural behavior. This is a new phenomenon in human history.

ADHD was not a problem of note until after the Industrial Revolution. The social changes in western society created environments and situations where this behavior became problematic. Certain children who are boredom intolerant are likely to react against this unnatural environment by either “tuning out” (ADD) or becoming restless and a disturbance (ADHD). Learn more about the history of ADHD at

Different cultures have different expectations of behavior and are more or less tolerant of active children. In United States’ schools, an attitude of intolerance towards children behaving in a manner similar to that described as ADHD has developed.

In other cultures that are more tolerant see the same behavior as just an “active child.” Some may even perceive the behavior as healthy. This is especially so where these people do not live in high rise apartments, but in smaller communities in more natural environments, where the children can run free.

Parenting styles vary, even within the Western cultural sphere. The parenting styles in Northern Europe are generally more child-centered than in the United States. Dutch parents, for example, are generally more aware of their children’s arousal and self-regulation, than the average parent in the United States, and they take care of their children get sufficient sleep, and are not overstimulated.

Schools in different countries have different attitudes, which facilitate the accommodation of different children or restrict all children into the same regimen. Canada is ahead of the United States in this regard, having a more flexible attitude. Many European schools have alternative seating styles and even allow for movement in class, with the spread of COVID-19 many schools are closed, and when they open they maintain social distance, and teachers are encouraged to go for RAT Tests.

There are studies that show that the rate of ADHD-like behavior is fairly consistent in children all over the world. However, the rate children are diagnosed varies greatly. In some cultures that behavior is not considered impairing the children. In the United States parents, especially when pressured from schools, are encouraged to look for medical treatment, usually stimulant drugs.

Within western society, there are definite differences even in the diagnosis. In Europe, the ICD-10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision) is used instead of the United States’ DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition). The ICD-10 has a different level of diagnosis of ADD and ADHD, resulting in 3 to 4 times fewer diagnoses than in the United States with the DSM-IV.

The proponents of the ADHD Social Construct Theory argue that while biological factors do play a large role in difficulties sitting still or concentrating on schoolwork in some children, the real problem is that the school systems, have failed to integrate these children with the social expectations that the schools have on them.

Some theories will explain some aspects of ADHD, while other theories show other sides of the condition. There is no single explanation. ADHD is complex. Trying to simplify it is not science, but wishful thinking. ADHD is very individual, in both cause, symptoms, and treatment. One theory might explain one individual’s ADHD, while another theory explains another person’s ADD, and a third person may find their explanation in parts from three theories. in this context the ADHD Social Construct Theory should be given more consideration than it is at present.

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